Whig Party - UK politcal party that was in power from 1714-60. They pushed forward a program of commercial and industrial development within Britain, favored an active foreign policy and were for religious toleration. They demanded parliamentary reform in Britain at the time of the French Revolution. After the passage of the Reform Bill in 1832 the party became known as the Liberals.
Tory Party - UK politcal party (1680-1830) that was the antecedant of the Conservative Party. They represented, for the most part, the powers to be, the status quo, the establishment.
Jacobite - someone who supported the royal house of Stuart following the depostion of James II in 1688. Jacobites attempted to reclaim the English throne three times by force of arms. After the defeat of the Jacobite army under the command of prince Charles Edward Stuart at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, Jacobites disappeared from the English politcal landscape.
Labour Party - UK politcal party founded in 1900 to support workers. It is based on socialist principles. Labour was recognized as the official opposition party in 1922 and has been a factor in minority governments and elections ever since. They supported Winston Churchill's wartime coalition government. The first Labour majority government was under Clement Attlee (1945-51) under whose leadership National Health Service was introduced and social security expanded.
For definitions of terms concerning the workings and structure of the British government click through to British Government on the Web where you will find basic information, links to political parties, Parliament, speeches and archives to explore. This link appears at the bottom of each political biography as well for easy access.