Arthurian Resources
Timelines, original sources and texts, reading lists, narrative histories, literature surveys, maps, interviews, lists and other resources to help you further your study of the fascinating history and legend of King Arthur



Timelines
Arthurian History and Legend
A chronological survey of the Arthurian story, spanning the period from Roman times until the present day.
Early British Kingdoms
An overview of the Arthurian period in Britain and the little-known kingdoms that occupied the island at that time.

Essays
Adventus Saxonum
Michael Veprauskas explores how the Saxons really managed to create a foothold in Britain.
Arthurian Inscription found at Tintagel
Deatils of the 'Artognou Stone' excavated at Tintagel Castle by Glasgow University.
The Arthurian Period in Britain
A portion of Peter Williams' excellent Narrative History of England.
Clerical Portrait of Vortigern?
Michael Veprauskas examines the usurper, Vortigern and how he is portrayed in ancient records.
Generations of Ambrosius
We take a close look at that controversial character, Ambrosius. One man or two? Michael Veprauskas tries to find an answer.
Nennius' 28 Cities of Britain
Nennius wrote of 28 cities in Arthurian Britain. David Nash Ford examines the archaeological evidence for their survival into post-Roman times.
Problem of Caer Guorthigern
Caer Guorthigern has been identified at so many sites. Michael Veprauskas suggests why.
Troubles with Vortigerns
David Sims examines Vortigern in detail. What do we really know about the man who apparently brought the Saxons to Britain?
Welsh Arthurian Literature
Much of what we believe about Arthur is directly traceable to the Welsh bards. Peter Williams surveys what has been written and sung about Arthur in Welsh.

King Arthur Basics
Arthur in Popular Literature
Who was it who made King Arthur so well known?
Arthur the King
Arthur is usually called a king, but which one? There seem to have been so many.
Arthur the Myth
Was Arthur purely mythical? A God transformed into a man?
Arthur the Warlord
Perhaps Arthur was a war leader rather than a monarch.
Early References to Arthur
Is there any documentary evidence that this man existed at all?
Arthurian Locations
Index of places associated with King Arthur.

Aspects of the Legend
Arthur's Battles
Nennius lists many of Arthur's battles, but where did they take place?
Camelot
Explore various claimants for the title of Camelot, King Arthur's Magnificent Court.
Excalibur
Arthur's famous sword hints at a magical and mythological past. Find out more here.
The Holy Grail
The most mystical of objects. Where did it come from and where did it go?
Knights of the Round Table
The Chivalric Order established by King Arthur. Who were its members?
The Round Table
The most famous piece of furniture in the World! What did it really represent?






Early Sources & Texts
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 9th C.
Fascinating (and massive) 52-part account of history covering the years 1 through 1154 AD from the point of view of the Anglo-Saxons. This is the COMPLETE TEXT.
Annales Cambriae, c. 970
The tenth century Annals of Wales containing two interesting references to King Arthur, which have been taken by some to be proof of his historicity.
The Battle of Llongborth, c.480
An English translation of a sixth century Welsh poem, called "Elegy for Geraint," which mentions Arthur.
The Dream of Rhonabwy, c.1200
An excerpt from a tale of the Welsh Mabinogion, which refers to Arthur as "Emperor," and mentions the Battle of Camlann.
Ralph of Coggeshall, c.1220
An excerpt from the "Chronicon Anglicanum" (English Chronicle) with an entry for the year 1191 on the opening of Arthur's grave.
De Excidio Britanniae, c.540
Sixth century diatribe written by the monk, Gildas, giving some insight into darkage Britain and the situation that gave rise to the legend of Arthur.
Early Welsh Verse, 7th C. to 14th C.
The mentions of Arthur in Welsh poems and verse are many. Sometimes he is a warrior, sometimes a leader, sometimes a ruffian, but he is almost never a king. Most of these verses are twelfth to fourteenth century copies, but are believed to have been originally composed much earlier.
The Exhumation of Arthur's Body, c.1193
Gerald of Wales' two eye-witness accounts, separated by twenty years in time, describing the digging up of King Arthur's grave at Glastonbury Abbey.
The Gothic History, AD 469
Excerpt from Jordanes' sixth century "Gothic History" telling of a vain attempt on the part of Riothamus, "king of the Brittones," and 12,000 men to help the Roman Emperor, Anthemius, in his struggle with the Visigoths.
Historia Brittonum, c.830
Nennius' ninth century entertaining, but questionable, collection of the facts, myths and fables covering the early history of Britain. Special emphasis on Arthur.
Legend of St. Goeznovius, c. 1019
An eleventh century Breton work in which Arthur is called "King of the Britons." But, was it really written as early as its date implies?
John Leland's "Itinerary" 1530-40
The Tudor scholar's account of his visit to South Cadbury, Somerset, and its association with the legend of King Arthur.
Letter to Riothamus, c.470
Fifth century letter from Sidonius Apollinaris, Bishop of Clermont-Ferrand, to Riothamus, thought by some to be the original of King Arthur.
Margam Abbey Chronicle, c.1300
An excerpt from the chronicle of a Welsh monastery with a unique account of the discovery of Arthur's body.

Arthurian Reading
Arthurian Links
Links to some of the other excellent Arthurian resources on the Web.
Reading List
Suggested readings in Arthurian history and legend.
Arthurian Literature for the Young
A librarian suggests the best entry points into the Arthurian legends for teens and younger children.
A Chat with Geoffrey Ashe
An interview with one of the world's best known Arthurian scholars and authors.
Early British Kingdoms
Find out all about the Kings and Kingdoms which existed in the Arthurian period by exploring David Nash Ford's detailed sub-site.

Historical Maps
Celtic Tribes in Britain
Distribution map of the pre-Roman Celtic peoples whose identities survived into the Arthurian period.
Early British Kingdoms, 5th C.
Location of all the kingdoms of the Arthurian period revealed, plus suggested regional centres to the east.
Welsh Kingdoms, 5th to 11th C.
The Kingdoms that made up Wales until its semi-unification under Llywelyn the Great.
Saxon Landings in Britain, AD 450
Map showing the landing points of the Saxons in Britain in the middle of the fifth century.
Saxon Land Holdings in Britain, AD 600
Map showing the areas occupied by the Saxons in Britain at the end of the sixth century.

Biographies: Contemporaries of Arthur
Arthur (High-King of Britain)
Ambrosius Aurelianus (King of Britain)
Bedivere (Sir)
Cador (Sir)
Carados (King of Estrangorre)
Constantine (Sir)
Elaine (Queen of Garlot)
Gaheris (Sir)
Gawain (Sir)
Gereint (Sir)
Gorlois (Duke of Tintagel)
Guinevere (Queen of Britain)
Howel(Sir)
Kay (Sir)
Lot (King of Orkney)
Mark (King of Cornwall)
Merlin (the Magician)
Morgan le Fay (Queen of Gore)
Nimue (The Lady of the Lake)
Pellinore (King of Listinoire)
Tristram (Sir)
Uriens (King of Gore)
Uther Pendragon (King of Britain)
Ygerna (Queen of Britain)
Yvain (Sir)

Biographies: Probable Historical Originals of Arthurian Characters
Annowre (the Sorceress)
Ban (King of Benwick)
Carados (Sir)
Cradelment (King of Northgalis)
Evelake (King of Sarras)
Iona (King of France)
Nentres (King of Garlot)
Percivale (Sir)
Piramus (Archbishop of York)

Biographies: Associated Characters
Arviragus
Caratacus
Constantine
Hengest
Joseph of Arimathea
Magnus Maximus
Vortigern

Biographies: Historians & Writers
Gerald of Wales
Gildas (St.)
Leland, John
Malory, Thomas (Sir)
Monmouth, Geoffrey of
Nennius
Tennyson, Alfred (Lord)
de Troyes, Chretien



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