A.D. 1018 . This year was the payment of the tribute over all
England; that was, altogether, two and seventy thousand pounds,
besides that which the citizens of London paid; and that was ten
thousand five hundred pounds. The army then went partly to
Denmark; and forty ships were left with King Knute. The Danes
and Angles were united at Oxford under Edgar's law; and this year
died Abbot Ethelsy at Abingdon, to whom Ethelwine succeeded.
A.D. 1019 . This year went King Knute with nine ships to Denmark,
where he abode all the winter; and Archbishop Elfstan died this
year, who was also named Lifing. He was a very upright man both
before God and before the world.
((A.D. 1019 . And this winter died Archbishop Elfstan [of
Canterbury]: he was named Living; and he was a very provident
man, both as to God and as to the world.))
A.D. 1020 . This year came King Knute back to England; and there
was at Easter a great council at Cirencester, where Alderman
Ethelward was outlawed, and Edwy, king of the churls. This year
went the king to Assingdon; with Earl Thurkyll, and Archbishop
Wulfstan, and other bishops, and also abbots, and many monks with
them; and he ordered to be built there a minster of stone and
lime, for the souls of the men who were there slain, and gave it
to his own priest, whose name was Stigand; and they consecrated
the minster at Assingdon. And Ethelnoth the monk, who had been
dean at Christ's church, was the same year on the ides of
November consecrated Bishop of Christ's church by Archbishop
((A.D. 1020 . And caused to be built there [Canterbury] a minster
of stone and lime, for the souls of the men who there were slain,
and gave it to one of his priests, whose name was Stigand.))
A.D. 1021 . This year King Knute, at Martinmas, outlawed Earl
Thurkyll; and Bishop Elfgar, the abundant giver of alms, died in
the morning of Christmas day.
A.D. 1022 . This year went King Knute out with his ships to the
Isle of Wight. And Bishop Ethelnoth went to Rome; where he was
received with much honour by Benedict the magnificent pope, who
with his own hand placed the pall upon him, and with great pomp
consecrated him archbishop, and blessed him, on the nones of
October. The archbishop on the self-same day with the same pall
performed mass, as the pope directed him, after which he was
magnificently entertained by the pope himself; and afterwards
with a full blessing proceeded homewards. Abbot Leofwine, who
had been unjustly expelled from Ely, was his companion; and he
cleared himself of everything, which, as the pope informed him,
had been laid to his charge, on the testimony of the archbishop
and of all the company that were with him.
((A.D. 1022 . And afterwards with the pall he there [at Rome]
performed mass as the pope instructed him: and he feasted after
that with the pope; and afterwards went home with a full
A.D. 1023 . This year returned King Knute to England; and
Thurkyll and he were reconciled. He committed Denmark and his
son to the care of Thurkyll, whilst he took Thurkyll's son with
him to England. This year died Archbishop Wulfstan; and Elfric
succeeded him; and Archbishop Egelnoth blessed him in Canterbury.
This year King Knute in London, in St. Paul's minster, gave full
leave (60) to Archbishop Ethelnoth, Bishop Britwine, and all
God's servants that were with them, that they might take up from
the grave the archbishop, Saint Elphege. And they did so, on the
sixth day before the ides of June; and the illustrious king, and
the archbishop, and the diocesan bishops, and the earls, and very
many others, both clergy and laity, carried by ship his holy
corpse over the Thames to Southwark. And there they committed
the holy martyr to the archbishop and his companions; and they
with worthy pomp and sprightly joy carried him to Rochester.
There on the third day came the Lady Emma with her royal son
Hardacnute; and they all with much majesty, and bliss, and songs
of praise, carried the holy archbishop into Canterbury, and so
brought him gloriously into the church, on the third day before
the ides of June. Afterwards, on the eighth day, the seventeenth
before the calends of July, Archbishop Ethelnoth, and Bishop
Elfsy, and Bishop Britwine, and all they that were with them,
lodged the holy corpse of Saint Elphege on the north side of the
altar of Christ; to the praise of God, and to the glory of the
holy archbishop, and to the everlasting salvation of all those
who there his holy body daily seek with earnest heart and all
humility. May God Almighty have mercy on all Christian men
through the holy intercession of Elphege!
((A.D. 1023 . And he caused St. Elphege's remains to be borne
from London to Canterbury.))
A.D. 1025 . This year went King Knute to Denmark with a fleet to
the holm by the holy river; where against him came Ulf and Eglaf,
with a very large force both by land and sea, from Sweden. There
were very many men lost on the side of King Knute, both of Danish
and English; and the Swedes had possession of the field of
A.D. 1026 . This year went Bishop Elfric to Rome, and received
the pall of Pope John on the second day before the ides of
A.D. 1028 . This year went King Knute from England to Norway with
fifty ships manned with English thanes, and drove King Olave from
the land, which he entirely secured to himself.
A.D. 1029 . This year King Knute returned home to England.
A.D. 1030 . This year returned King Olave into Norway; but the
people gathered together against him, and fought against him; and
he was there slain, in Norway, by his own people, and was
afterwards canonised. Before this, in the same year, died Hacon
the doughty earl, at sea.
((A.D. 1030 . This year came King Olave again into Norway, and
the people gathered against him, and fought against him; and he
was there slain.))
A.D. 1031 . This year returned King Knute; and as soon as he came
to England he gave to Christ's church in Canterbury the haven of
Sandwich, and all the rights that arise therefrom, on either side
of the haven; so that when the tide is highest and fullest, and
there be a ship floating as near the land as possible, and there
be a man standing upon the ship with a taper-axe in his hand,
whithersoever the large taper-axe might be thrown out of the
ship, throughout all that land the ministers of Christ's church
should enjoy their rights. This year went King Knute to Rome;
and the same year, as soon as he returned home, he went to
Scotland; and Malcolm, king of the Scots, submitted to him, and
became his man, with two other kings, Macbeth and Jehmar; but he
held his allegiance a little while only. Robert, Earl of
Normandy, went this year to Jerusalem, where he died; and
William, who was afterwards King of England, succeeded to the
earldom, though he was a child.
A.D. 1032 . This year appeared that wild fire, such as no man
ever remembered before, which did great damage in many places.
The same year died Elfsy, Bishop of Winchester; and Elfwin, the
king's priest, succeeded him.
A.D. 1033 . This year died Bishop Merewhite in Somersetshire, who
is buried at Glastonbury; and Bishop Leofsy, whose body resteth
at Worcester, and to whose see Brihteh was promoted.
A.D. 1034 . This year died Bishop Etheric, who lies at Ramsey.
A.D. 1035 . This year died King Knute at Shaftesbury, on the
second day before the ides of November; and he is buried at
Winchester in the old minster. He was king over all England very
near twenty winters. Soon after his decease, there was a council
of all the nobles at Oxford; wherein Earl Leofric, and almost all
the thanes north of the Thames, and the naval men in London,
chose Harold to be governor of all England, for himself and his
brother Hardacnute, who was in Denmark. Earl Godwin, and all the
eldest men in Wessex, withstood it as long as they could; but
they could do nothing against it. It was then resolved that
Elfgiva, the mother of Hardacnute, should remain at Winchester
with the household of the king her son. They held all Wessex in
hand, and Earl Godwin was their chief man. Some men said of
Harold, that he was the son of King Knute and of Elfgive the
daughter of Alderman Elfelm; but it was thought very incredible
by many men. He was, nevertheless, full king over all England.
Harold himself said that he was the son of Knute and of Elfgive
the Hampshire lady; though it was not true; but he sent and
ordered to be taken from her all the best treasure that she could
not hold, which King Knute possessed; and she nevertheless abode
there continually within the city as long as she could.
(60) Matthew of Westminster says the king took up the body with
his own hands.
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