A.D. 1053 . About this time was the great wind, on the mass-night
of St. Thomas; which did much harm everywhere. And all the
midwinter also was much wind. It was this year resolved to slay
Rees, the Welsh king's brother, because he did harm; and they
brought his head to Gloucester on the eve of Twelfth-day. In
this same year, before Allhallowmas, died Wulfsy, Bishop of
Lichfield; and Godwin, Abbot of Winchcomb; and Aylward, Abbot of
Glastonbury; all within one month. And Leofwine, Abbot of
Coventry, took to the bishopric at Lichfield; Bishop Aldred to
the abbacy at Winchcomb; and Aylnoth took to the abbacy at
Glastonbury. The same year died Elfric, brother of Odda, at
Deerhurst; and his body resteth at Pershore. In this year was
the king at Winchester, at Easter; and Earl Godwin with him, and
Earl Harold his son, and Tosty. On the day after Easter sat he
with the king at table; when he suddenly sunk beneath against the
foot-rail, deprived of speech and of all his strength. He was
brought into the king's chamber; and they supposed that it would
pass over: but it was not so. He continued thus speechless and
helpless till the Thursday; when he resigned his life, on the
seventeenth before the calends of May; and he was buried at
Winchester in the old minster. Earl Harold, his son, took to the
earldom that his father had before, and to all that his father
possessed; whilst Earl Elgar took to the earldom that Harold had
before. The Welshmen this year slew a great many of the warders
of the English people at Westbury. This year there was no
archbishop in this land: but Bishop Stigand held the see of
Canterbury at Christ church, and Kinsey that of York. Leofwine
and Wulfwy went over sea, and had themselves consecrated bishops
there. Wulfwy took to the bishopric which Ulf had whilst he was
living and in exile.

((A.D. 1053 . This year was the great wind on Thomas's-mass-
night, and also the whole midwinter there was much wind; and it
was decreed that Rees, the Welsh king's brother, should be slain,
because he had done harm; and his head was brought to Gloucester
on Twelfth-day eve. And the same year, before All Hallows-mass,
died Wulfsy, Bishop of Lichfield, and Godwin, Abbot of Winchcomb,
and Egelward, Abbot of Clastonbury, all within one month, and
Leofwine succeeded to the Bishopric of Lichfield, and Bishop
Aidred [Of Worcester] took the abbacy at Winchcomb, and Egelnoth
succeeded to the abbacy at Glastonbury. And the same year died
Elfric, Odda's brother at Deorhurst; and his body resteth at
Pershore. And the same year died Godwin the earl; and he fell
ill as he sat with the king at Winchester. And Harold his son
succeeded to the earldom which his father before held; and Elgar,
the earl, succeeded to the earldom which Harold before held.))

((A.D. 1053 . In this year died Godwin, the earl, on the
seventeenth before the kalends of May, and he is buried at
Winchester, in the Old-minster; and Harold, the earl, his son,
succeeded to the earldom, and to all that which his father had
held: and Elgar, the earl, succeeded to the earldom which Harold
before held.))

A.D. 1054 . This year died Leo the holy pope, at Rome: and Victor
was chosen pope in his stead. And in this year was so great loss
of cattle as was not remembered for many winters before. This
year went Earl Siward with a large army against Scotland,
consisting both of marines and landforces; and engaging with the
Scots, he put to flight the King Macbeth; slew all the best in
the land; and led thence much spoil, such as no man before
obtained. Many fell also on his side, both Danish and English;
even his own son, Osborn, and his sister's son, Sihward: and many
of his house-carls, and also of the king's, were there slain that
day, which was that of the Seven Sleepers. This same year went
Bishop Aldred south over sea into Saxony, to Cologne, on the
king's errand; where he was entertained with great respect by the
emperor, abode there well-nigh a year, and received presents not
only from the court, but from the Bishop of Cologne and the
emperor. He commissioned Bishop Leofwine to consecrate the
minster at Evesham; and it was consecrated in the same year, on
the sixth before the ides of October. This year also died Osgod
Clapa suddenly in his bed, as he lay at rest.

((A.D. 1054 . This year went Siward the earl with a great army
into Scotland, both with a ship-force and with a landforce, and
fought against the Scots, and put to flight King Macbeth, and
slew all who were the chief men in the land, and led thence much
booty, such as no man before had obtained. But his son Osborn,
and his sister's son Siward, and some of his house-carls, and
also of the king's, were there slain, on the day of the Seven
Sleepers. The same year went Bishop Aldred to Cologne, over sea,
on the king's errand; and he was there received with much worship
by the emperor [Henry III], and there he dwelt well nigh a year;
and either gave him entertainment, both the Bishop of Cologne and
the emperor. And he gave leave to Bishop Leofwine [Of Lichfield]
to consecrate the minster at Evesham on the sixth before the ides
of October. In this year died Osgod suddenly in his bed. And
this year died St. Leo the pope; and Victor was chosen pope in
his stead.))

A.D. 1055 . This year died Earl Siward at York; and his body lies
within the minster at Galmanho, (76) which he had himself ordered
to be built and consecrated, in the name of God and St. O1ave, to
the honour of God and to all his saints. Archbishop Kinsey
fetched his pall from Pope Victor. Then, within a little time
after, a general council was summoned in London, seven nights
before mid-Lent; at which Earl Elgar, son of Earl Leofric, was
outlawed almost without any guilt; because it was said against
him that he was the betrayer of the king and of all the people of
the land. And he was arraigned thereof before all that were
there assembled, though the crime laid to his charge was
unintentional. The king, however, gave the earldom, which Earl
Siward formerly had, to Tosty, son of Earl Godwin. Whereupon
Earl Elgar sought Griffin's territory in North-Wales; whence he
went to Ireland, and there gave him a fleet of eighteen ships,
besides his own; and then returned to Wales to King Griffin with
the armament, who received him on terms of amity. And they
gathered a great force with the Irishmen and the Welsh: and Earl
Ralph collected a great army against them at the town of
Hereford; where they met; but ere there was a spear thrown the
English people fled, because they were on horses. The enemy then
made a great slaughter there -- about four hundred or five
hundred men; they on the other side none. They went then to the
town, and burned it utterly; and the large minster (77) also
which the worthy Bishop Athelstan had caused to be built, that
they plundered and bereft of relic and of reef, and of all things
whatever; and the people they slew, and led some away. Then an
army from all parts of England was gathered very nigh; (78) and
they came to Gloucester: whence they sallied not far out against
the Welsh, and there lay some time. And Earl Harold caused the
dike to be dug about the town the while. Meantime men began to
speak of peace; and Earl Harold and those who were with him came
to Bilsley, where amity and friendship were established between
them. The sentence of outlawry against Earl Elgar was reversed;
and they gave him all that was taken from him before. The fleet
returned to Chester, and there awaited their pay, which Elgar
promised them. The slaughter was on the ninth before the calends
of November. In the same year died Tremerig, the Welsh bishop,
soon after the plundering; who was Bishop Athelstan's substitute,
after he became infirm.

((A.D. 1055 . In this year died Siward the earl at York, and he
lies at Galmanho, in the minster which himself caused to be
built, and consecrated in God's and Olave's name. And Tosty
succeeded to the earldom which he had held. And Archbishop
Kynsey [Of York], fetched his pall from Pope Victor. And soon
thereafter was outlawed Elgar the earl, son of Leofric the earl,
well-nigh without guilt. But he went to Ireland and to Wales,
and procured himself there a great force, and so went to
Hereford: but there came against him Ralph the earl, with a large
army, and with a slight conflict he put them to flight, and much
people slew in the flight: and they went then into Hereford-port,
and that they ravaged, and burned the great minster which Bishop
Athelstan had built, and slew the priests within the minster, and
many in addition thereto, and took all the treasures therein, and
carried them away with them. And when they had done the utmost
evil, this counsel was counselled: that Elgar the earl should be
inlawed, and be given his earldom, and all that had been taken
from him. This ravaging happened on the 9th before the Kalends
of November. In the same year died Tremerin the Welsh bishop [Of
St. David's] soon after that ravaging: and he was Bishop
Athelstan's coadjutor from the time that he had become infirm.))

((A.D. 1055 . In this year died Siward the earl: and then was
summoned a general council, seven days before Mid-lent; and they
outlawed Elgar the earl, because it was cast upon him that he was
a traitor to the king and to all the people of the land. And he
made a confession of it before all the men who were there
gathered; though the word escaped him unintentionally. And the
king gave the earldom to Tosty, son of Earl Godwin, which Siward
the earl before held. And Elgar the earl sought Griffin's
protection in North-Wales. And in this year Griffin and Elgar
burned St. Ethelbert's minster, and all the town of Hereford.))


(76) The church, dedicated to St. Olave, was given by Alan Earl
of Richmond, about thirty-three years afterwards, to the
first abbot of St. Mary's in York, to assist him in the
construction of the new abbey. It appears from a MS. quoted
by Leland, that Bootham-bar was formerly called "Galman-
hithe", not Galmanlith, as printed by Tanner and others.
(77) Called St. Ethelbert's minster; because the relics of the
holy King Ethelbert were there deposited and preserved.
(78) The place where this army was assembled, though said to be
very nigh to Hereford, was only so with reference to the
great distance from which some part of the forces came; as
they were gathered from all England. They met, I
conjecture, on the memorable spot called "Harold's Cross",
near Cheltenham, and thence proceeded, as here stated, to

Chronicle Year: 1052 (second part)
Chronicle Years: 1056-63

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