A.D. 902 . This year was the great fight at the Holme (39)
between the men of Kent and the Danes.

((A.D. 902 . This year Elswitha died.))

A.D. 903 . This year died Alderman Ethelwulf, the brother of
Elhswitha, mother of King Edward; and Virgilius abbot of the
Scots; and Grimbald the mass-priest; on the eighth day of July.
This same year was consecrated the new minster at Winchester, on
St. Judoc's advent.

A.D. 904 . This year came Ethelwald hither over sea with all the
fleet that he could get, and he was submitted to in Essex. This
year the moon was eclipsed.

A.D. 905 . This year Ethelwald enticed the army in East-Anglia to
rebellion; so that they overran all the land of Mercia, until
they came to Cricklade, where they forded the Thames; and having
seized, either in Bradon or thereabout, all that they could lay
their hands upon, they went homeward again. King Edward went
after, as soon as he could gather his army, and overran all their
land between the foss and the Ouse quite to the fens northward.
Then being desirous of returning thence, he issued an order
through the whole army, that they should all go out at once. But
the Kentish men remained behind, contrary to his order, though he
had sent seven messengers to them. Whereupon the army surrounded
them, and there they fought. There fell Aldermen Siwulf and
Sigelm; Eadwold, the king's thane; Abbot Kenwulf; Sigebriht, the
son of Siwulf; Eadwald, the son of Acca; and many also with them;
though I have named the most considerable. On the Danish side
were slain Eohric their king, and Prince Ethelwald, who had
enticed them to the war. Byrtsige, the son of Prince Brihtnoth;
Governor Ysop; Governor Oskytel; and very many also with them
that we now cannot name. And there was on either hand much
slaughter made; but of the Danes there were more slain, though
they remained masters of the field. Ealswitha died this same
year; and a comet appeared on the thirteenth day before the
calends of November.

((A.D. 906 . This year King Edward, from necessity, concluded a
peace both with the army of East-Anglia and of North-humbria.))

A.D. 907 . This year died Alfred, who was governor of Bath. The
same year was concluded the peace at Hitchingford, as King Edward
decreed, both with the Danes of East-Anglia, and those of
Northumberland; and Chester was rebuilt.

A.D. 909 . This year died Denulf, who was Bishop of Winchester;
and the body of St. Oswald was translated from Bardney into

A.D. 910 . This year Frithestan took to the bishopric of
Winchester; and Asser died soon after, who was Bishop o[
Sherborne. The same year King Edward sent an army both from
Wessex and Mercia, which very much harassed the northern army by
their attacks on men and property of every kind. They slew many
of the Danes, and remained in the country five weeks. This year
the Angles and the Danes fought at Tootenhall; and the Angles had
the victory. The same year Ethelfleda built the fortress at

((A.D. 910 . This year the army of the Angles and of the Danes
fought at Tootenhall. And Ethelred, ealdor of the Mercians,
died; and King Edward took possession of London, and of Oxford,
and of all the lands which owed obedience thereto. And a great
fleet came hither from the south, from the Lidwiccas (Brittany),
and greatly ravaged by the Severn; but they were, afterwards,
almost all perished.))

A.D. 911 . This year the army in Northumberland broke the truce,
and despised every right that Edward and his son demanded of
them; and plundered the land of the Mercians. The king had
gathered together about a hundred ships, and was then in Kent
while the ships were sailing along sea by the south-east to meet
him. The army therefore supposed that the greatest part of his
force was in the ships, and that they might go, without being
attacked, where that ever they would. When the king learned on
enquiry that they were gone out on plunder, he sent his army both
from Wessex and Mercia; and they came up with the rear of the
enemy as he was on his way homeward, and there fought with him
and put him to flight, and slew many thousands of his men. There
fell King Eowils, and King Healfden; Earls Ohter and Scurf;
Governors Agmund, Othulf, and Benesing; Anlaf the Swarthy, and
Governor Thunferth; Osferth the collector, and Governor

((A.D. 911 . Then the next year after this died Ethelred, lord of
the Mercians.))

A.D. 912 . This year died Ethered, alderman of Mercia; and King
Edward took to London, and to Oxford, and to all the lands that
thereunto belonged. This year also came Ethelfleda, lady of the
Mercians, on the holy eve called the invention of the holy cross,
to Shergate, and built the fortress there, and the same year that
at Bridgenorth.

A.D. 913 . This year, about Martinmas, King Edward had the
northern fortress built at Hertford, betwixt the Memer, and the
Benwic, and the Lea. After this, in the summer, betwixt gang-
days and midsummer, went King Edward with some of his force into
Essex, to Maldon; and encamped there the while that men built and
fortified the town of Witham. And many of the people submitted
to him, who were before under the power of the Danes. And some
of his force, meanwhile, built the fortress at Hertford on the
south side of the Lea. This year by the permission of God went
Ethelfleda, lady of Mercia, with all the Mercians to Tamworth;
and built the fort there in the fore-part of the summer; and
before Lammas that at Stafford: in the next year that at
Eddesbury, in the beginning of the summer; and the same year,
late in the autumn, that at Warwick. Then in the following year
was built, after mid-winter, that at Chirbury and that at
Warburton; and the same year before mid-winter that at Runkorn.

((A.D. 915 . This year was Warwick built.))

A.D. 916 . This year was the innocent Abbot Egbert slain, before
midsummer, on the sixteenth day before the calends of July. The
same day was the feast of St. Ciricius the martyr, with his
companions. And within three nights sent Ethelfleda an army into
Wales, and stormed Brecknock; and there took the king's wife,
with some four and thirty others.

A.D. 917 . This year rode the army, after Easter, out of
Northampton and Leicester; and having broken the truce they slew
many men at Hookerton and thereabout. Then, very soon after
this, as the others came home, they found other troops that were
riding out against Leighton. But the inhabitants were aware of
it; and having fought with them they put them into full flight;
and arrested all that they had taken, and also of their horses
and of their weapons a good deal.

A.D. 918 . This year came a great naval armament over hither
south from the Lidwiccians; (40) and two earls with it, Ohter and
Rhoald. They went then west about, till they entered the mouth
of the Severn; and plundered in North-Wales everywhere by the
sea, where it then suited them; and took Camlac the bishop in
Archenfield, and led him with them to their ships; whom King
Edward afterwards released for forty pounds. After this went the
army all up; and would proceed yet on plunder against
Archenfield; but the men of Hertford met them, and of Glocester,
and of the nighest towns; and fought with them, and put them to
flight; and they slew the Earl Rhoald, and the brother of Ohter
the other earl, and many of the army. And they drove them into a
park; and beset them there without, until they gave them
hostages, that they would depart from the realm of King Edward.
And the king had contrived that a guard should be set against
them on the south side of Severnmouth; west from Wales, eastward
to the mouth of the Avon; so that they durst nowhere seek that
land on that side. Nevertheless, they eluded them at night, by
stealing up twice; at one time to the east of Watchet, and at
another time at Porlock. There was a great slaughter each time;
so that few of them came away, except those only who swam out to
the ships. Then sat they outward on an island, called the Flat-
holms; till they were very short of meat, and many men died of
hunger, because they could not reach any meat. Thence went they
to Dimmet, and then out to Ireland. This was in harvest. After
this, in the same year, before Martinmas, went King Edward to
Buckingham with his army, and sat there four weeks, during which
he built the two forts on either side of the water, ere he
departed thence. And Earl Thurkytel sought him for his lord; and
all the captains, and almost all the first men that belonged to
Bedford; and also many of those that belonged to Northampton.
This year Ethelfleda, lady of the Mercians, with the help of God,
before Laminas, conquered the town called Derby, with all that
thereto belonged; and there were also slain four of her thanes,
that were most dear to her, within the gates.

((A.D. 918 . But very shortly after they had become so, she died
at Tamworth, twelve days before midsummer, the eighth year of her
having rule and right lordship over the Mercians; and her body
lies at Gloucester, within the east porch of St. Peter's

A.D. 919 . This year King Edward went with his army to Bedford,
before Martinmas, and conquered the town; and almost all the
burgesses, who obeyed him before, returned to him; and he sat
there four weeks, and ordered the town to be repaired on the
south side of the water, ere he departed thence.

((A.D. 919 . This year also the daughter of Ethelred, lord of the
Mercians, was deprived of all dominion over the Mercians, and
carried into Wessex, three weeks before mid-winter; she was
called Elfwina.))

A.D. 920 . This year, before midsummer, went King Edward to
Maldon; and repaired and fortified the town, ere he departed
thence. And the same year went Earl Thurkytel over sea to
Frankland with the men who would adhere to him, under the
protection and assistance of King Edward. This year Ethelfleda
got into her power, with God's assistance, in the early part of
the year, without loss, the town of Leicester; and the greater
part of the army that belonged thereto submitted to her. And the
Yorkists had also promised and confirmed, some by agreement and
some with oaths, that they would be in her interest. But very
soon after they had done this, she departed, twelve nights before
midsummer, at Tamworth, the eighth year that she was holding the
government of the Mercians with right dominion; and her body
lieth at Glocester, in the east porch of St. Peter's church.
This year also was the daughter of Ethered, lord of the Mercians,
deprived of all authority over the Mercians, and led into Wessex,
three weeks before midwinter. Her name was Healfwina.

A.D. 921 . This year, before Easter, King Edward ordered his men
to go to the town of Towcester, and to rebuild it. Then again,
after that, in the same year, during the gang-days, he ordered
the town of Wigmore to be repaired. The same summer, betwixt
Lammas and midsummer, the army broke their parole from
Northampton and from Leicester; and went thence northward to
Towcester, and fought against the town all day, and thought that
they should break into it; but the people that were therein
defended it, till more aid came to them; and the enemy then
abandoned the town, and went away. Then again, very soon after
this, they went out at night for plunder, and came upon men
unaware, and seized not a little, both in men and cattle, betwixt
Burnham-wood and Aylesbury. At the same time went the army from
Huntington and East-Anglia, and constructed that work at
Ternsford; which they inhabited and fortified; and abandoned the
other at Huntingdon; and thought that they should thence oft with
war and contention recover a good deal of this land. Thence they
advanced till they came to Bedford; where the men who were within
came out against them, and fought with them, and put them to
flight, and slew a good number of them. Then again, after this,
a great army yet collected itself from East-Anglia and from
Mercia, and went to the town of Wigmore; which they besieged
without, and fought against long in the day; and took the cattle
about it; but the men defended the town, who were within; and the
enemy left the town, and went away. After this, the same summer,
a large force collected itself in King Edward's dominions, from
the nighest towns that could go thither, and went to Temsford;
and they beset the town, and fought thereon; until they broke
into it, and slew the king, and Earl Toglos, and Earl Mann his
son, and his brother, and all them that were therein, and who
were resolved to defend it; and they took the others, and all
that was therein. After this, a great force collected soon in
harvest, from Kent, from Surrey, from Essex, and everywhere from
the nighest towns; and went to Colchester, and beset the town,
and fought thereon till they took it, and slew all the people,
and seized all that was therein; except those men who escaped
therefrom over the wall. After this again, this same harvest, a
great army collected itself from East-Anglia, both of the land-
forces and of the pirates, which they had enticed to their
assistance, and thought that they should wreak their vengeance.
They went to Maldon, and beset the town, and fought thereon,
until more aid came to the townsmen from without to help. The
enemy then abandoned the town, and went from it. And the men
went after, out of the town, and also those that came from
without to their aid; and put the army to flight, and slew many
hundreds of them, both of the pirates and of the others. Soon
after this, the same harvest, went King Edward with the
West-Saxon army to Passham; and sat there the while that men
fortified the town of Towcester with a stone wall. And there
returned to him Earl Thurferth, and the captains, and all the
army that belonged to Northampton northward to the Welland, and
sought him for their lord and protector. When this division of
the army went home, then went another out, and marched to the
town of Huntingdon; and repaired and renewed it, where it was
broken down before, by command of King Edward. And all the
people of the country that were left submitted to King Edward,
and sought his peace and protection. After this, the same year,
before Martinmas, went King Edward with the West-Saxon army to
Colchester; and repaired and renewed the town, where it was
broken down before. And much people turned to him. both in East-
Anglia and in Essex, that were before under the power of the
Danes. And all the army in East-Anglia swore union with him;
that they would all that he would, and would protect all that he
protected, either by sea or land. And the army that belonged to
Cambridge chose him separately for their lord and protector, and
confirmed the same with oaths, as he had advised. This year King
Edward repaired the town of Gladmouth; and the same year King
Sihtric slew Neil his brother.

A.D. 922 . This year, betwixt gang-days and midsummer, went King
Edward with his army to Stamford, and ordered the town to be
fortified on the south side of the river. And all the people
that belonged to the northern town submitted to him, and sought
him for their lord. It was whilst he was tarrying there, that
Ethelfleda his sister died at Tamworth, twelve nights before
midsummer. Then rode he to the borough of Tamworth; and all the
population in Mercia turned to him, who before were subject to
Ethelfleda. And the kings in North-Wales, Howel, and Cledauc,
and Jothwel, and all the people of North-Wales, sought him for
their lord. Then went he thence to Nottingham, and secured that
borough, and ordered it to be repaired, and manned both with
English and with Danes. And all the population turned to him,
that was settled in Mercia, both Danish and English.

A.D. 923 . This year went King Edward with an army, late in the
harvest, to Thelwall; and ordered the borough to be repaired, and
inhabited, and manned. And he ordered another army also from the
population of Mercia, the while he sat there to go to Manchester
in Northumbria, to repair and to man it. This year died
Archbishop Plegmund; and King Reynold won York.

A.D. 924 . This year, before midsummer, went King Edward with an
army to Nottingham; and ordered the town to be repaired on the
south side of the river, opposite the other, and the bridge over
the Trent betwixt the two towns. Thence he went to Bakewell in
Peakland; and ordered a fort to be built as near as possible to
it, and manned. And the King of Scotland, with all his people,
chose him as father and lord; as did Reynold, and the son of
Eadulf, and all that dwell in Northumbria, both English and
Danish, both Northmen and others; also the king of the
Strathclydwallians, and all his people.

((A.D. 924 . This year Edward was chosen for father and for lord
by the king of the Scots, and by the Scots, and King Reginald,
and by all the North-humbrians, and also the king of the
Strath-clyde Britons, and by all the Strath-clyde Britons.))

((A.D. 924 . This year King Edward died among the Mercians at
Farndon; and very shortly, about sixteen days after this, Elward
his son died at Oxford; and their bodies lie at Winchester. And
Athelstan was chosen king by the Mercians, and consecrated at
Kingston. And he gave his sister to Ofsae (Otho), son of the
king of the Old-Saxons.))


(39) Or, in Holmsdale, Surry: hence the proverb:
"This is Holmsdale,
Never conquer'd, never shall."
(40) The pirates of Armorica, now Bretagne; so called, because
they abode day and night in their ships; from lid, a ship,
and wiccian, to watch or abide day and night.

Chronicle Years: 894-900
Chronicle Years: 925-41

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