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410 - Emperor Honorius of Rome tells Britain to attend to its own affairs. Zosmius reports Roman officials expelled and native government establishes "independence".

c.410 - Governor Owain Finddu of Glywysing is assassinated in Gwynedd. Irish incursions into Gwynedd, Powys, Garth Madrun, Dyfed & the Gower Peninsula.

411 - Capture, at Arles, of Constatine, last Emperor of Britain. He was executed at Ravenna soon afterward.

413 - Pelagian heresy said to have begun, by Prosper (Tiro) of Aquitaine in his "Chronicle".

420 - Pelagian heresy outlawed in Rome (418) but, in Britain, supposedly enjoys much support from "pro-Celtic" faction. Traditionalists (pro-Romans) support Roman church. During this time, according to Prosper, Britain is ruled by petty "tyrants".

c.420 - Death of Coel Hen, probably the last Roman Dux Brittanniarum. The lands of his office in Northern Britain are divided between his descendants and become petty kingdoms of the "Gwyr y Gogledd".

421 - Supposed death of King Gradlon Mawr of Brittany. Probable division of Brittany into sub-kingdoms of Cornouaille and Domnonée.

c.423 - Birth of St. Patrick in Banna Venta Burniae, thought to be near Birdoswald.

425 - Vortigern usurps Imperial power in Britain, possibly as High-King.

c.425 - Cunedda Wledig and his retinue are moved south from Manau Gododdin to Gwynedd in order to expel the invading Irish.

c.425-50 - King Conomor flourishes in Dumnonia, probably from his capital at Castle Dore.

428 - Vortigern invites a number of Germanic warriors to aid him in consolidating his position in Britain according to the Historia Brittonum. This appears to have been an early use of German mercenaries, who probably settled in the Dorchester-upon-Thames area.

429 - At the request of Palladius, a British deacon, Pope Celestine I dispatches Bishops Germanus of Auxerre and Lupus of Troyes to Britain to combat Pelagian heresy. While in Britain, Germanus, a former military man, leads Britons to "Hallelujah" victory on the Welsh border. St. Cadfan founds the Monastery of Barsdey.

c.434 - St. Patrick is captured by pirates and taken to Ireland as a slave.

435 - Tibatto leads Armorican movement for independence from Roman Gaul.

c.435 - War breaks out between the Irish settlers in Garth Madrun and Powys. King Anlach of Garth Madrun is defeated and forced to send his son, Brychan, as a hostage to the Powysian Court.

437 - Ambrosius Aurelianus appears as leader of the Pro-Roman faction in Britain (traditionally returning from exile in Brittany). Vortigern's apparent relative, Vitalinus (Guitolinus), fights against Ambrosius at the Battle of Wallop. The latter is probably victorious and is "given all the kingdoms of the western side of Britain".

c.437 - The Irish chieftain, Triffyn Farfog takes the Kingdom of Dyfed by marrying the daughter of King Clotri.

c.440 - St. Patrick escapes from his captors and returns to Britain.

c.440-50 - Period of Civil War and famine in Britain, caused by ruling council's weakness and inability to deal with Pictish invasions; situation aggravated by tensions between Pelagian/Roman factions. Vacated towns and cities in ruin. Migration of pro-Roman citizens toward west. Country beginning to be divided, geographically, along factional lines. King Glywys of Glywysing flourishes in Glywysing.

c.440-90 - King Brychan flourishes in Brycheiniog. His three wives give birth to many saintly children who evangelize Dumnonia.

c.441 - Gallic Chronicle records, prematurely, that "Britain, abandoned by the Romans, passed into the power of the Saxons."

443 - Death of King Constantine Corneu of Dumnonia. His kingdom was divided between his two sons as Dumnonia and Cerniw.

446 - Britons (probably the pro-Roman party) appeal to Aetius, Roman governor of Gaul, for military assistance in their struggle against the Picts and the Irish/Scots. No help could be sent, at this time, as Aetius had his hands full with Attila the Hun.

c.446 - Vortigern authorizes the use of Saxon mercenaries, known as foederati, for the defence of the northern parts against barbarian attack and to guard against further Irish incursions. The Saxons are given a little land in Lincolnshire.

447 - Second visit of St. Germanus (this time accompanied by Severus, Bishop of Trier) to Britain. Was this visit spiritually motivated, to combat a revived Pelagian threat or was Germanus sent in Aetius' stead, to do whatever he could to help the desperate Britons? Vortigern is accused of incest. Battle of Aylesford (Kent) in which the rebellious sons of Vortigern, Vortimer and Cadeyrn, defeat Hengest for the first time. Cadeyrn is killed in the fighting. Germanus expells the Irish from Powys and restores Cadeyrn's son, Cadell Ddernllwg, to the throne.

c.447 - Britons, aroused to heroic effort, "inflicted a massacre" on their enemies, the Picts and Irish, and were left in peace, for a brief time. Could this heroic effort have been led, again, by St. Germanus?

c.448 - Civil war and plague ravage Britain.

c.450 - In the first year of Marcian and Valentinian, Hengest arrives on shores of Britain with "3 keels" of warriors, and are welcomed by Vortigern. This event is known in Latin as the "Adventus Saxonum," the coming of the Saxons.

c.452 - Increasing Saxon settlement in Britain. Vortigern marries Hengest's daughter, Rowenna, and supposedly offers the Jutish leader the kingdom of Kent. Hengest invites his son, Octha, from Germany with "16 keels" of warriors, who occupy the northern lands, to defend against the Picts. Picts never heard from, again.

c.453 - Raids on British towns and cities becoming more frequent. Increasing Saxon unrest.

455 - Prince Vortimer apparently rebels against the pro-Saxon policies of his father, Vortigern, and fights Hengest at the Battle of Crayford. Hengest is victorious and the British army flees back to London.

456 - The indecisve Battle of Aylesford between Hengest's Saxons and the British under Prince Vortimer. Prince Cadeyrn of Britain and King Horsa of Kent are killed in the fighting.

c.456 - St. Patrick leaves Britain once more to evangelise Ireland. Geoffrey of Monmouth tells us of a probably fictitious, but entirely believable, event in which Saxons massacre 300 leading British noblemen at a phony "peace" conference.

c.458 - Saxon uprising in full-swing. Hengest finally conquers Kent, in south-eastern Britain.

c.458-60 - Full-scale migration of British aristocrats and city-dwellers across the English Channel to Armorica, in north-western Gaul (the "second migration"). British contingent led by Riothamus (perhaps a title, not a name).

c.459 - Vortigern is burnt to death while being besieged by Ambrosius Aurelianus at Ganarew.

c.460-70 - Ambrosius Aurelianus of pro-Roman faction takes full control of Britain; leads Britons in years of back-and-forth fighting with Saxons. British strategy seems to have been to allow Saxon landings and to then contain them there.

464 - Supposed death of the legendary King Aldrien of Brittany.

465 - Battle of Wippedsfleet (or Richborough), in which the Britons defeat the Saxons, but with great slaughter on both sides. The latter are confined to the Isle of Thanet and there is a respite from fighting "for a long time."

c.465 - 'King' Arthur probably born around this time. Birth of St. Dyfrig also.

c.466-73 - Period of minimal Saxon activity. Re-fortification of ancient hillforts and construction of the Wansdyke possibly takes place during this time.

c.469 - Roman emperor, Anthemius, appeals to Britons for military help against the Visigoths. Reliable accounts by Sidonius Apolonaris and Jordanes name the leader of the 12,000 man Breton force, Riothamus. The bulk of the British force was wiped out in battle against Euric, the Visigothic king, and the survivors, including Riothamus, vanished and were never heard from, again.

c.471 - The army of King Ceretic of Strathclyde raids the Irish Coast and carries off some of St. Patrick's new flock and sells them into slavery. The king receives a written repremand from the Irish Evangelist.

473 - Men of Kent, under Hengest, move westward, driving Britons back before them "as one flees fire."

477 - Saxon chieftain, Aelle, lands on Sussex coast with his sons. Britons engage him upon landing but his superior force besieges them at Pevensey and drives them into the Weald. Over next nine years, Saxon coastal holdings are gradually expanded in Sussex.

c.480 - King Erbin of Dumnonia abdicates in favour of his son, King Gerren Llygesoc. Death of King Glywys of Glywysing. His kingdom is divided into Gwynllwg, Penychen, Gorfynedd, Edeligion and others.

c.485 - Birth of St. Samson.

c.485-96 - Period of Arthur's "twelve battles" during which he gains reputation for invincibility.

486 - Aelle and his sons overreach their normal territory and are engaged by Britons at battle of Mercredesburne. Battle is bloody, but indecisive, and ends with both sides pledging friendship.

c.487 - Birth of St. David.

c.490 - Hengest dies. His son, Aesc, takes over and rules for 34 years. Death of Einion Yrth of Gwynedd. His kingdom is divided into Gwynedd and Rhos. St. Cybi Felyn is born in Callington in Cerniw.

493 - Death of St. Patrick, in Glastonbury according to local legend. Down Patrick seems more likely.

c.495 - The Germanic King Cerdic and his son, Cynric, land somewhere on the south coast, probably near the Hampshire-Dorset border. Their followers establish the beginnings of the Kingdom of Wessex. King Gwynllyw of Gwynllwg carries off Princess Gwladys of Brycheiniog. War between the two kingdoms narrowly avoided by the intercession of the legendary Arthur. The couple marry.

c.496 - The Siege of Mount Badon. Britons, under the command of the "war leader" Arthur, defeat the Saxons, under King Esla of Bernicia and possibly Cerdic of Wessex.

c.496-550 - Following the victory at Mt. Badon, the Saxon advance is halted with the invaders returning to their own enclaves. A generation of peace ensues. Corrupt leadership, more civil turmoil, public forgetfulness and individual apathy further erode Romano-British culture over next fifty years, making Britain ripe for final Saxon "picking."

497 - Birth of St. Cadog. Death of King Erbin of Dumnonia.

c.500-17 - King Cadwallon Lawhir expels the Irish from Anglesey.

c.505 - Death of St. Paulinus.

508 - King Cerdic of Wessex begins to move inland and defeats British king, Nudd-Lludd (Natanleod), at the Battle of Netley.

c.510 - The Battle of Llongborth (possibly Langport or Portsmouth), where King Gerren Llyngesoc of Dumnonia, was killed. Prince Rivod of Brittany murders his brother, King Maeliaw, and usurps the Breton throne. Many of the Breton Royal family flee to Britain, including Prince Budic who seeks refuge at the court of King Aircol Lawhir in Dyfed.

c.515 - Death of Aelle. Kingdom of Sussex passed to his son, Cissa and his descendents, but over time, diminished into insignificance.

517 - Death of King Cadwallon Lawhir of Gwynedd. His son, Maelgwn takes the throne, murders his uncle, probably King Owain Danwyn of Rhos, and re-unites the two kingdoms.

517-49 - King Maelgwn flourishes in Gwynedd. Invades Dyfed and generally tries to assert himself as High-King of Britain.

519 - Kingdom of the West Saxons (Wessex) founded with Cerdic its first ruler.

c.520 - King Pabo Post Prydain of the Pennines abdictaes his throne and divides the kingdom between his two sons. He retires, as a hermit, to Anglesey. Death of King Riwal Mawr Marchou of Domnonée. King Budic II of Brittany returns to Cornouaille to claim the Breton throne.

521 - St. Samson is consecrated a bishop by St. Dyfrig, Archbishop of Glywysing & Gwent.

523 - Death of King Gwynllyw of Gwynllwg. Gwnllywg and Penychen united under his son, St. Cadog

c.525 - St. Samson founds the Monastery of Dol and becomes its first Abbot.

c.528 - King & Saint Cadog of Glywysing abdicates in favour of King Meurig of Gwent, who is joined in marriage to Cadog's aunt. Banishment of Princess Thaney of Gododdin. Birth of her son, St. Kentigern.

530 - Saint Pabo Post Prydain, ex-King of the Pennines dies at Llanbabo. The British of the Isle of Wight are defeated by King Cerdic of Wessex at the Battle of Carisbrooke.

c.535 - Kings Sawyl Penuchel of the Southern Pennines is expelled from his kingdom (enemy uncertain) and flees to Powys. Death of King Meirchion Gul of Rheged. The kingdom is divided into North and South. Death of St. Illtud, Abbot of Llanilltud Fawr.

537 - Battle of Camlann, according to Annales Cambriae. Fought between the forces of Arthur and Mordred. Death (or unspecified other demise) of Arthur (according to Geoffrey of Monmouth). Saint and King Constantine ruling in Dumnonia.

c.538 - King Cynlas Goch of Rhos abandons his wife in favour of his sister-in-law, a nun who he drags from her convent. Civil War between Cynlas and his cousin, King Maelgwn of Gwynedd. Maelgwn enters a monastery, but soon returns to secular life and murders his nephew in order to marry his widow! Civil War also in Powys due to the tyranny of King Cyngen Glodrydd.

540 - King Jonas of Domnonée is murdered by King Cono-Mark of Cerniw and Poher. Cono-Mark marries Jonas' widow and rules Domnonée.

c.540 - Probable writing of Gildas' "De Excidio Britanniae." King Caradog Freichfras of Gwent gives Caerwent to St. Tathyw and moves the Royal court to Portskewett

545 - Death of the joint-Kings Budic II and his son Hoel I Mawr of Brittany. King Tewdwr Mawr succeeds to the throne, but is quickly ousted from Cornouaille by King Macliau of the Vannetais. Tewdwr flees to Cerniw and sets himself up as King of the Penwith region.

c.545 - The Synod of Brefi is held at Llandewi Brefi to condemn the Pelagian heresy. St. Dyfrig, Archbishop of South Wales resigns his position in favour of St. David. David moves the Archdiocese from Caerleon to St. Davids. Death of St. Dyfrig. He is succeeded as Bishop of Glywysing & Gwent by St. Teilo. Prince Judwal of Domnonée flees from his murderous step-father to the court of King Childebert of the Franks.

546 - St. Gildas returns to Brittany with St. Cadog.

547 - The King of Bryneich is expelled from his fortress of Bamburgh by King Ida of Bernicia. Apparent death of the, probably joint-king, Hoel II Fychan of Brittany.

c.548 - King Cono-Mark of Cerniw, Poher and Domnonée marries Princess Triphine of Broërec.

549 - "Yellow" Plague hits British territories, causing many deaths, including King Maelgwn of Gwynedd. Ireland also affected. Saxons, for whatever reason, are unaffected by it.

c.550 - Death of St. Ninian, Bishop of Whithorn. Birth of St. Tremeur. Murder of his mother, Triphine, by his father, King Cono-Mark of Cerniw, Poher and Domnonée. Prince Judwal of Domnonée retakes his throne. Cono-Mark flees to Cornwall. The semi-legendary Kingdom of Lyonesse possibly inundated by the sea.

552 - King Cynric of Wessex lays siege to the British at Old Sarum and put them to flight.

555 - St. Cybi Felyn, Abbot of Holyhead, dies at his monastery. Murder of St. Tremeur. Death of his father, King Cono-Mark of Cerniw and Poher.

c.555 - Death of King Erb of Gwent. The kingdom is divided into Gwent and Ergyng.

556 - King Cynric of Wessex lays siege to the British at Barbury Castle and is victorious.

558 - Broërec is attacked by King Childebert of the Franks. King Canao II leads resistance.

c.560 - Prince Elidyr of Strathclyde invades Gwynedd in right of his wife. He tries to expel his brother-in-law, King Rhun Hir of Gwynedd, at the Battle of the Cadnant Brook, but is killed in the process.

564 - Death of St. Tugdual, Bishop of Tréguier.

c.564 - St. Cadog settles in Weedon in Calchfynedd and is made Bishop there. St. Samson attends the Council of Paris and witnesses several Royal decrees.

c.565 - King Riderch Hael of Strathclyde mounts an unsuccessful revenge attack on King Rhun Hir of Gwynedd. Rhun marches on Strathclyde and reinforces the armies of his half-brother, Brudei, in Pictland. Death of St. Samson.

569 - St. David holds the Synod of Victoria to denounce the Pelagian heresy once more.

570 - Death of St. Gildas.

c.570-75 - The Northern British Alliance is forged between the kingdoms of North Rheged, Strathclyde, Bryneich and Elmet. They fight the Northumbrians at the Battles of Gwen Ystrad and the Cells of Berwyn

571 - King Cuthwulf of Wessex invades Midland Britain and defeats the British, probably under the King of Calchfynedd, at the Battle of Bedford.

573 - Kings Peredyr and Gwrgi of Ebrauc ally themselves with Kings Dunaut Bwr of the Northern Pennines and Riderch Hael of Strathclyde. They march north to claim the fort at Caerlaverock from King Gwendoleu of Caer-Gwendoleu. The latter was killed in the Battle of Arthuret and his bard, Myrddin, is forced to flee into the Caledonian Forest.

575 - Prince Owein of North Rheged kills King Theodoric of Bernicia at the Battle of Leeming Lane.

577 - Wessex invades the lower Severn Valley. Kings Ffernfael of Caer-Baddan, Cyndyddam of Caer-Ceri and Cynfael of Caer-Gloui are killed at the Battle of Dyrham. Wessex overuns the Cirencester area. King Tewdwr Mawr of Brittany returns to Cornouaille, reclaims his throne and kills King Macliau of the Vannetais in battle.

580 - The army of Kings Peredyr and Gwrgi of Ebrauc march north to fight the Anglians of Bernicia. Both are killed by King Adda's forces at Caer Greu. The Deirans rise up, under King Aelle, and move on the City of Ebrauc. King Peredyr's son is forced to flee the Kingdom. St. Cadog is martyred in Calchfynedd by invading Mercians.

584 - Death of St. Deiniol Gwyn, Bishop of Bangor Fawr. The British are victorious over King Ceawlin of Wessex at the Battle of Fethanleigh and kill his brother, Cuthwine. Ceawlin ravages the surrounding countryside in revenge.

585 - Death of King Alain I of Brittany.

586 - Death of King Rhun Hir of Gwynedd. Death of King Judwal of Domnonée.

588 - King Edwin of Deira is ousted from his Kingdom by the Bernicians and seeks refuge at the court of King Iago of Gwynedd.

589 - Death of Saint and King Constantine of Dumnonia. Death of St. David, Archbishop of St. Davids.

590 - The Siege of Lindisfarne. The Northern British Alliance (North Rheged, Strathclyde, Bryneich and Elmet) lays siege to King Hussa of Bernicia and almost exterminates the Northumbrians from Northern Britain. King Urien of North Rheged is assassinated at the behest of his jealous ally King Morcant Bulc of Bryneich. The Northumbrians recover while internal squabbles tear the British Alliance apart.

c.591 - King Dunaut Bwr of the Northern Pennines mounts an invasion of North Rheged, but is repulsed by its King, Owein, and his brother, Prince Pasgen. Prince Elffin of North Rheged is simultaneously attacked by King Gwallawc Marchawc Trin of Elmet.

c.593 - King Morcant Bulc of Bryneich invades North Rheged and kills King Owein in battle. Prince Pasgen of North Rheged flees to the Gower Peninsula. A greatly diminished North Rheged probably continues under the rule of their brother, Rhun.

595 - The aging King Dunaut Bwr of the Northern Pennines dies fighting off a Bernician invasion. His kingdom is overrun and his family flee to join his grandson in Gwynedd.

598 - Kings Mynyddog Mwynfawr of Din-Eidyn & Cynan of Gododdin ride south to fight Saxon Bernicia against enormous odds at the Battle of Catterick. The British are victorious, though King Gerren of Dumnonia is killed in the fighting. He is buried at Dingerein. Probable expansion of North Rheged to fill the vacuum left in North Yorkshire.

TIMELINE: The Arthurian Legend
TIMELINE: Saxon 597 AD-687 AD

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