Science in Britain
ritain has a long record of achievement in science and technology in thetwentieth century. Nobel prizes for science have been won by 70 British citizens, second only to the United States.

In the last two decades major contributions have been made by British scientists working in universities, research institutes and industry. These have included theories on black holes and the origins of the universe; the discovery of genes linked to cystic fibrosis and other diseases; the development of monoclonal antibodies and scanning techniques for medical diagnosis; the invention of DNA profiling to identify an individual from blood and tissue specimens; and the world's first combined heart, lung and liver transplant.

The government considers that public funding should support work in the basic sciences to advance knowledge and technological capability and provide training for scientists. Industry, however, is expected to fund the commercial applications of scientific advances.

Total expenditures in 1991 on scientific research and development (R&D) was more than £12,100 million, 2.2 per cent of GNP. Industry provides 50 per cent of those monies. The government provides just over 40 per cent with the rest coming from charities, trusts and overseas investment.

Industrial Research & Development
Industries with the highest levels of R&D are electronics, chemicals and aerospace. Of a total of £8,000 million in 1990-91, industry contributed 68 per cent, government 17 per cent and the rest came from foriegn interests.

Electronic firms are involved in developing new semiconductor materials for computer applications in personal communictions and collision warning devices. Chemical research has led to breakthroughs in heat-resistant engineering plastics and substitutes for environmentally harmful chemicals. Pharmaceuticals is the most research intensive segment of the chemical industry. Their research has produced several of the world's best-selling drugs such as the ulcer treatment Zantac and beta-blockers to treat heart conditions. Pioneering acheivements in aerospace include advanced radar and aircraft control systems, flight simulators and ejection seats.

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